A Touch of France: French doctors in Egypt with Napoleon

Due to its flexibility, speed and confidentiality, arbitration becomes the most attractive method for contracting parties to resolve their commercial disputes. This method of choice has developed gradually in the modern legal system of Islamic Countries ICs over the last three decades. Thus, many of individual countries have enacted their own arbitration regulations and ratified the relevant international arbitration conventions. They also established many qualified regional arbitration institutions. Subsequently, the referral to arbitration by professionals of these countries to settle their commercial disputes gains abundant popularity. Enforcement is certainly the goal for the arbitration process. The high volume of international trade and the assortment of transactions have led to a noticeable increase in the number and complexity of trade-related disputes. This drove parties to search for efficient means to resolve disputes. Many were the means and mechanisms of dispute settlement among the most prominent at international level is arbitration.

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Marked by battles won and lost, revolts and reprisals, propaganda and backlashes, the French occupation of Egypt lasted but three years. What remains of its martial ambitions may perhaps be traced in the pages of military manuals, but its legacy is not the work of men of war, but of doctors, scholars, and scientists—the Description of Egypt—a multivolume work on Egyptian antiquities, flora and fauna, geology, climate, diseases, town planning, politics, and economics.

Bonaparte himself supervised the medical and sanitary preparations for his Campaign of Egypt. On the ground, his medical men strove to overcome a host of difficulties that beset the troops: dehydration, cholera, ophthalmia, plague, and more. By setting up hospitals and lazarettos quarantine stations , studying diseases, and implementing hygienic initiatives, the French medical corps enjoyed some measure of success. Meanwhile, subject to increasing pressure from British and Ottoman forces, the French military capitulated at Alexandria in August and were expelled.

Among his preoccupations were the organization of military and civilian medicine and the health of his people, and for this he recruited doctors and medical instructors from France to help modernize health care in Egypt. Soon after his arrival he cured Muhammad Ali of gastroenteritis, became his personal physician, and later was appointed chief health care administrator, and so by creating medical schools and hospitals laid the foundations of modern medical instruction and care in Egypt.

The Egypt Napoleon Bonaparte invaded in had been part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly three hundred years. The Ottomans ruled through the Mamluks, dynasties of emancipated slaves captured in Turkestan, southern Russia, and eastern Europe Georgians, Slavs, Greeks. The Mamluks had held sway over the country since the 13th century, their power rooted in an elaborate military organization and in control of the spice trade with the European powers.

Bonaparte prepared the Campaign of Egypt in the utmost secrecy in relation to the British.

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O perspectivă asupra conflictului sirian și a revoltei egiptene din iunie more The rise of political Islam in Libya and Tunisia and the new regional security.

De nombreuses raisons expliquent ce passage. How the Immigrant has Become Muslim. Public Debates on Islam in Europe. In classical sociology the other was more frequently the internal minority, then the immigrant. Many reasons can explain this shift. Some of them are obviously linked to recent changes: the increasing number of immigrants of Muslim origin living in European countries, with the socio-cultural problems linked to this presence, on one hand, and the emerging role of Islam as a public actor on the global scene, included through fundamentalism and terrorism, on the other.

Other reasons are less conjectural, and are related to long term evolutions in the European societies. From this point of view, the public debates on Islam increasingly move from reductionism to essentialism. The paradox of this situation is that, while the processes of integration of Muslims in European societies becomes more and more empirically an evidence, the perception of Muslims often becomes more and more full of conflicts.

This fact is particularly visible in the controversies about Islamic symbols in the public space, and in intellectual and mediated debates about books such as those of Oriana Fallaci. Muchas son las razones que explican este cambio.

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